(a) Subsidiaries

Subsidiaries are all entities (including structured entities) over which the Group has control. NORMA Group controls an entity when the Group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. Consolidation of an investee begins on the date on which the Group obtains control over the company. It ends when the Group loses control over the investee.

Intercompany transactions, balances and unrealized gains or losses on transactions between Group companies are eliminated. Accounting policies of subsidiaries have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.

The Group uses the acquisition method of accounting to account for business combinations. The initial value for the acquisition of a subsidiary is recognized at fair value of the assets transferred, the liabilities incurred on the acquisition date and the equity interests issued by the Group. The initial value recognized includes the fair value of any asset or liability resulting from a contingent consideration arrangement. On the acquisition date, the fair value of the contingent consideration is recognized as part of the consideration transferred in exchange for the acquiree. Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair value on the acquisition date. According to IFRS 3, for each business combination, the acquirer measures any non-controlling interest in the acquiree either at fair value (full goodwill method) or at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the acquiree’s net assets. The Group measures the non-controlling interest in the acquiree at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the acquiree’s net assets.

The excess of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interest in the acquiree and the acquisition-date fair value of any previous equity interest in the acquiree over the fair value of the Group’s share of the identifiable net assets acquired, is recorded as goodwill. If this is less than the fair value of the net assets of the subsidiary acquired in the case of a bargain purchase, the difference is recognized immediately in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income.

In a business combination achieved in stages, the Group remeasures its previously held equity interest in the acquiree at its acquisition-date fair value and recognizes the resulting gain or loss, if any, in profit or loss.

(b) Non-controlling interests

Non-controlling interests have a share in the earnings of the reporting period. Their interests in the shareholders’ equity of subsidiaries are reported separately from the equity of the Group.

The Group treats transactions with non-controlling interests that do not result in a loss of control as transactions with equity owners of the Group. For purchases from non-controlling interests, the difference between any consideration paid and the relevant share acquired of the carrying value of net assets of the subsidiary is recorded in equity.

(c) Disposal of subsidiaries

When the Group ceases to have control, any retained interest in the subsidiary is remeasured at its fair value, with the change in the carrying amount recognized in profit or loss. The initial carrying amount is the fair value for the purposes of subsequently accounting for the retained interest as an associate, joint venture or financial asset. In addition, any amounts previously recognized in other comprehensive income in respect of that entity are accounted for as if the Group had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities. This means that an amount previously recognized in the currency translation reserve is reclassified to profit or loss as part of the gain or loss on disposal. In the case of only partial disposal without loss of control of a subsidiary that includes a foreign operation, the corresponding portion of the cumulative translation difference is allocated to non-controlling interests.

Valuation methods

The following table shows the most important valuation methods that form the basis for the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements:

Valuation methods


Fair value estimation

For financial instruments that are measured in the Statement of Financial Position at fair value in accordance with IFRS 13, IFRS 7 requires a disclosure of fair value measurements by level using the following fair value measurement hierarchy. This comprises three levels:

Level 1:    Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities,

Level 2:    Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either
    directly (that is as prices) or indirectly (that is derived from prices), and

Level 3:    Inputs for the asset or liability that are not based on observable market data (that is unobservable inputs).

The level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement is categorized in total is determined on the basis of the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in total. The different hierarchy levels demand different amounts of disclosure.

Foreign currency translation

(a) Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (‘the functional currency’). The Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in ‘euros’ (EUR), which is NORMA Group SE’s functional and the Group’s presentation currency.

(b) Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency using the actual exchange rates on the dates of the transactions or valuation where items are remeasured. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognized in profit or loss.

Foreign exchange gains and losses that relate to borrowings and cash and cash equivalents are presented in profit or loss within ‘financial income / costs’. All other foreign exchange gains and losses are presented in profit or loss within ‘other operating income / expenses’.

(c) Group companies

The results and financial position of all the Group entities that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:

Assets and liabilities for each Consolidated Statement of Financial Position presented are translated at the closing rate on the date of that Consolidated Statement of Financial Position;

Income and expenses are translated at average exchange rates (unless this average is not a reasonable approximation of the cumulative effect of the rates prevailing on the transaction dates, in which case income and expenses are translated at the actual rate on the dates of the transactions); and

All resulting exchange differences are recognized as a separate component of equity.

Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising through the acquisition of a foreign entity are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign entity and translated at the closing rate.

Intangible assets

(a) Goodwill

Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the Group’s share of the net identifiable assets of the acquired subsidiary on the date of acquisition. Goodwill on acquisitions of subsidiaries is included in ‘intangible assets’. Goodwill is tested annually for impairment and carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses. Impairment losses on goodwill are not reversed. Gains and losses on the disposal of an entity include the carrying amount of goodwill relating to the entity sold.

Goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units for the purpose of impairment testing. The allocation is made to those cash-generating units or groups of cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the business combination in which the goodwill arose.

(b) Development costs

Costs of research activities undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding are expensed as incurred.

Costs for development activities, whereby research findings are applied to a plan or design for the production of new or substantially improved products and processes, are capitalized if

development costs can be measured reliably,

the product or process is technically and commercially feasible, and

future economic benefits are probable.

Furthermore, NORMA Group intends, and has sufficient resources, to complete development and use or sell the asset. The costs capitalized include the cost of materials, direct labor and other directly attributable expenditure that serves to prepare the asset for use. Such capitalized costs are included in profit or loss in ‘own work capitalized’. Capitalized development costs are stated at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses with an amortization period of generally three to five years. Development costs which did not meet the requirements are expensed as incurred.

(c) Other intangible assets

Separately acquired other intangible assets are shown at historical cost less accumulated amortization. Intangible assets acquired in a business combination are recognized at fair value on the acquisition date. Other intangible assets which have a finite useful life will be amortized over their estimated useful life. Amortization is calculated using the straight-line method to allocate their cost. Other intangible assets which are determined to have indefinite useful lives as well as intangible assets not yet available for use are not amortized, but instead tested for impairment at least annually. Furthermore, other intangible assets which are determined to have indefinite useful lives and therefore are not amortized will be reviewed each period to determine whether events and circumstances continue to support an indefinite useful life assessment for these assets.

In general, the Group’s other intangibles are not qualifying assets in accordance with IAS 23 and borrowing costs eligible for capitalization therefore do not exist.

The useful lives of other intangible assets acquired in a business combination are estimates based on the economics of each specific asset, which were determined in the process of the purchase price allocation. The major part of these assets are brand names and customer lists.

Other intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are essentially brand names, for which the end of usability is not foreseeable and therefore indeterminable. These brand names result from acquisitions. For these brand names, an indefinite useful life is assumed. Based on a market perspective, there are no clear indications for a definite useful life of these brand names as they have been well-established in the market for many years.

Property, plant and equipment

All property, plant and equipment are stated at historical cost less depreciation and impairment loss, if substantial. The historical acquisition or production costs include the costs directly attributable to the acquisition or production of the property, plant and equipment as well as appropriate portions of the production-related overheads. Also included, if available, is the present value of the estimated costs of demolition and removal of the item and restoration of the site on which it is located. Borrowing costs eligible for capitalization in the sense of IAS 23 were not available.

Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is foreseeable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of the replaced part is derecognized. Costs of major overhauls that meet certain recognition criteria are capitalized as a component of property, plant and equipment or right-of-use assets and depreciated over the appropriate maintenance cycle. All other repairs and maintenance expenses are charged to profit or loss during the financial period in which they are incurred.

Land is not depreciated. Depreciation of other assets is calculated using the straight-line method to allocate their cost to their residual values over their estimated useful lives.

The assets’ residual values and useful lives are reviewed and adjusted, if appropriate, on each balance sheet date.

Leasing activities of the Group and their accounting treatment

Leases are recognized as rights of use and corresponding lease liabilities at the time when the leased asset is available for use by the Group. In doing so, each lease payment is divided into repayment and financing expenses. Finance expenses are charged to the income statement over the lease term. The right-of-use asset is amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the useful life and the lease term.

Right-of-use asset and lease liabilities are initially recognized at present value. The lease liabilities generally include the present value of the following lease payments:

fixed payments (including de facto fixed payments, less any leasing incentives to be received)

variable lease payments linked to an index or interest rate

expected residual value payments from residual value guarantees of the lessee

the exercise price of a purchase option, if it is sufficiently certain that the lessee will exercise it

penalties for terminating the lease, if the lease term takes into account that the lessee will exercise a termination option

Lease payments are discounted at the interest rate underlying the lease if this can be determined. Otherwise, they are discounted at the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate. Right-of-use assets are measured at cost, which is comprised as follows:

amount of the initial measurement of the lease liability

all leasing payments made at or before the commencement date, less any lease incentives received

all initial direct costs incurred by the lessee, and

the estimated costs incurred by the lessee in dismantling or removing the underlying asset, restoring the site on which it is located, or returning the underlying asset to the condition required by the lease agreement.

Exceptions in the form of accounting options exist for short-term leases (minimum term of a maximum of twelve months if no purchase option has been agreed) and for low-value assets. The lease payments resulting from these leases are therefore to continue to be included in operating expenses in the future. Furthermore, lessees are granted an accounting option not to separate lease and non-lease components.

i. Extension and termination options

In determining the term of leases, all facts and circumstances that provide an economic incentive to exercise extension options or not to exercise termination options are taken into account. Changes to the term of the lease resulting from the exercise of extension and termination options are only included in the term of the lease if an extension or non-exercise of a termination option is reasonably certain.

The following considerations are taken into account when determining the term of the leases or the inclusion or non-inclusion of extension and termination options:


existence of renewal or purchase options and their conditions,

an obligation to dismantle installations or restore them to their original condition,

amount of lease payments (including all variable payments) for an optional period compared to customary market payments.

Asset-based / Company-based

the existence of significant leasehold improvements that would be lost in the event of (premature) termination or non-extension of the contract,

costs in connection with a loss of production upon termination of the lease,

costs associated with the acquisition of an alternative asset,

dependence of the business activity (core business) on the continued use of the asset,

financial consequences of the extension or termination of the lease,

nature of the leased asset (specific vs. generic / general leased asset; extent to which the leased asset is critical to the lessee’s operations).


legal and local regulations to be observed for the (permanent) obligation,

alternative lease payments for comparable assets.

The assessment will be reviewed if a significant event or significant change in circumstances occurs that could influence the previous assessment, provided this is within the lessee’s control.

Impairment of non-financial assets

(a) Assets with finite useful lives

An impairment test must be carried out for assets with a determinable useful life if there are indications of a possible impairment. If there are any such indications, the amortized carrying amount of the asset is compared with the recoverable amount, which represents the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. The value in use is equivalent to the present value of the future cash flows expected from the continuing use of the asset. To test for impairment, assets are grouped into the smallest group of assets that generate cash inflows from continuing use that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or cash-generating units. In the event of impairment, the difference between the amortized carrying amount and the lower recoverable amount is recognized as an expense. The impairment loss is reversed as soon as there are indications that the reasons for impairment no longer exist. These may not exceed the amortized cost of acquisition.

(b) Goodwill and other assets with an indefinite useful life

Other intangible assets with an indefinite useful life, other intangible assets not yet ready for use or advance payments on such assets as well as goodwill must be tested for impairment annually. A test is also performed whenever there is any indication that an asset might be impaired. Where the reasons for an impairment no longer exist, the impairment loss is reversed, except in the case of goodwill. The recoverable amount is determined for each individual asset, unless an asset generates cash inflows that are not largely independent of those from other assets or other groups of assets or cash-generating units. In these cases, the impairment test is performed at the relevant level of cash-generating units to which the asset is attributable.

Goodwill acquired in a business combination is allocated at the acquisition date to the cash-generating unit or group of cash-generating units that are expected to profit from the synergies deriving from the business combination. This also represents the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes. These are the operating and reportable segments EMEA, Americas and Asia-Pacific.

The Group normally determines the recoverable amount using measurement methods based on discounted cash flows.

Brand names with indefinite useful lives acquired in business combinations are tested for impairment at the level at which there is a recoverable amount. This is based on the fair value less costs to sell, which is determined using the relief from royalty method.

For cash-generating units, NORMA Group first determines the relevant recoverable amount as fair value less costs to sell, which it compares with the respective carrying amounts, including allocated goodwill in the case of impairment tests on goodwill. For further information regarding the calculation of the fair value less costs to sell and the underlying key assumptions, please refer to NOTE 18. GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS.


Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated variable selling costs. Cost is determined using the weighted average method. The cost of finished goods and work in progress

comprises design costs as well as raw materials, direct labor, other direct costs and related production overheads (based on normal operating capacity). Inventories of the Group are not qualifying assets in accordance with IAS 23, so that the acquisition or production costs do not include capitalized borrowing costs.

Financial instruments

(a) Financial assets


The Group classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:

Debt instruments measured at amortized cost (AC);

Debt instruments measured at fair value (FVOCI), with cumulative gains and losses reclassified to the income statement when the financial asset is derecognized;

Debt, derivative and equity instruments at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL);

Equity instruments classified as FVOCI, with gains and losses remaining in other comprehensive income (OCI) (without reclassification).

The classification of debt instruments depends on the business model NORMA Group uses to manage its financial assets and the characteristics of the contractual cash flows of these financial assets.

NORMA Group reclassifies debt instruments only when the business model for managing such financial assets changes.

Recognition and derecognition

Regular purchases and sales of financial assets are recognized on the trade date – the date on which the Group commits to purchase or sell the asset. Financial assets are derecognized when the rights to receive cash flows have expired or been transferred and the Group has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership.


Financial assets are initially recognized at fair value plus transaction costs for all financial assets not carried at fair value through profit or loss.

Debt instruments

The subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the Group’s business model for managing the financial asset and the cash flow characteristics of the financial asset.

A debt instrument is measured at amortized cost if the objective of the business model is to hold the financial asset in order to collect the contractual cash flows and the contractual cash flows from the financial asset represent only principal and interest payments and the fair value option is not exercised at inception. Interest income from these financial assets is recognized in financial income using the effective interest method. Gains and losses from derecognition, impairment and currency translation are recognized directly in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income and reported in other operating income / expenses.

A debt instrument that is held in a business model in which both the contractual cash flows of financial assets are received and financial assets are sold, and in which the contractual cash flows include only principal and interest payments, is measured at fair value with no effect on income, unless the fair value option is exercised upon initial recognition. Changes in the carrying amount are recognized in other comprehensive income, except for impairment

gains or losses, interest income and gains and losses on currency translation, which are recognized directly in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income. When the financial asset is derecognized, the cumulative gain or loss recognized in other comprehensive income is reclassified from equity to the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income. Interest income from these financial assets is recognized in financial income using the effective interest method. Gains and losses from currency translation are recognized directly in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income and reported in other operating income / expenses.

The impairment losses recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income are disclosed separately in the section “Notes to the Statement of Comprehensive Income.”

All other debt instruments that do not meet these two conditions must be measured at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL).

Equity instruments

All equity instruments are subsequently measured at fair value. If an equity instrument is not held for trading purposes, NORMA Group may, at the time of initial recognition, make the irrevocable decision to measure it at fair value with recognition of changes in value in other comprehensive income (FVTOCI), whereby only income from dividends is recognized in profit or loss for the period unless it represents a capital repayment.

Changes in the fair value of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income under other operating income / expenses.


NORMA Group assesses on a forward-looking basis the expected credit losses associated with its debt instruments, which are measured at amortized cost or at fair value with no effect on income.

The Group has three types of financial assets subject to this new model:

Trade receivables from the sale of goods and the rendering of services,

Contract assets from research and development activities; and

Other debt instruments measured at amortized cost.

In the case of trade receivables, NORMA Group applies the simplified approach provided for in IFRS 9, which requires the recognition of expected credit losses over the term of the receivables from their initial recognition; further details can be found in NOTE 21. (A) TRADE AND OTHER RECEIVABLES.

Receivables which are significantly overdue, which can be more than 180 days due to the customer structure, or those whose debtors were subject to insolvency or similar proceedings, are individually tested for impairment.

The criteria that the Group uses to determine if there is objective evidence of an impairment loss include:

A breach of contract, such as a default or delinquency in interest or principal payments;

The Group, for economic or legal reasons relating to the borrower’s financial difficulty, granting to the borrower a concession that the lender would not otherwise consider;

It becomes probable that the borrower will enter bankruptcy or other financial reorganization.

Receivables that are not reasonably expected to be realizable in full or in part are written down accordingly, thus directly reducing the gross carrying amount. For cash and cash equivalents, other debt instruments measured at

amortized cost such as receivables from the ABS program and factoring (both from purchase price retentions) and other receivables, mainly from banker’s acceptance bills for trade receivables, NORMA Group applies the general impairment approach. As it is our policy to only invest in high-quality assets of issuers with a minimum rating of at least investment grade so as to minimize the risk of credit losses, we use the low credit risk exception. Thus, these assets are always allocated to stage 1 of the three-stage credit loss model and, if material, a loss allowance for an amount equal to 12-month expected credit losses will be recorded. This loss allowance is calculated based on our exposure as of the respective reporting date, the loss given default for this exposure, and the credit default swap spread as a measure of the probability of default. Although NORMA Group only invests in assets with at least an investment grade rating, the development of credit default swap premiums as a measure of a debtor's credit rating is monitored by market participants. In this way, changing risk structures among contractual partners can be identified and any changes can be responded to promptly.

(b) Financial liabilities

Financial liabilities primarily include trade payables, liabilities to banks, derivative financial liabilities and other liabilities.

Financial liabilities that are measured at amortized cost

After initial recognition, financial liabilities are carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method. Trade payables, liabilities to banks and other financial liabilities, in particular, are assigned to this category

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss

Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss include derivative financial instruments and contingent purchase price liabilities. Gains or losses on financial liabilities that are measured at fair value through profit or loss are included in profit or loss.

(c) Derivative financial instruments and hedging activities

Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently remeasured at their fair value. The method of recognizing the resulting gain or loss depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged.

Derivative financial instruments not designated as hedges

Gains and losses from derivatives that are not designated as hedges (trading derivatives) are recognized in profit or loss. Trading derivatives are classified as non-current assets or liabilities in accordance with IAS 1.68 and IAS 1.71 if they have a remaining term of more than one year; otherwise they are classified as current.

Derivative financial instruments designated as hedges

Derivatives included in hedge accounting are generally designated as either:

Hedges of the fair value of recognized assets or liabilities or firm commitments (fair value hedge);

Hedges of a particular risk associated with a recognized asset or liability or a highly probable forecast transaction (cash flow hedge); or

Hedges of a net investment in a foreign operation (net investment hedge).

At the inception of the transaction, NORMA Group documents the relationship between the hedging instruments and the hedged item, including whether changes in the cash flows of the hedging instruments offset changes in the cash flows of the hedged item. The Group documents the risk management objectives and strategies for undertaking the hedging transaction.

Further information on the hedging instruments used by the Group can be found at NOTE 5 FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT and 21. (F) DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS.

The development of the hedging reserve in equity can be found in NOTE 21. (F) DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS.

(d) Offsetting financial instruments

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position when there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognized amounts and an intention to settle on a net basis, or realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. At NORMA Group, arrangements exist which do not meet the criteria for netting in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position according to IAS 32.42, as they allow netting only in the case of future events such as default or insolvency on the part of the Group or the counterparty.

Current and deferred income tax

The tax expenses for the period are comprised of current and deferred tax. Tax is recognized in profit or loss, except to the extent that it relates to items recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. In this case, the tax is also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, respectively.

The current income tax charge is calculated on the basis of the tax laws enacted on the balance sheet date in the countries where the Group’s subsidiaries operate. Management periodically evaluates positions taken in tax returns with respect to situations in which applicable tax regulation is subject to interpretation. It establishes provisions where appropriate on the basis of amounts expected to be paid to the tax authorities.

Deferred income tax is recognized using the liability method on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the Consolidated Financial Statements and on tax losses carried forward and tax credits not yet used. Deferred income tax is determined using tax rates (and laws) that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the balance sheet date and are expected to apply when the related deferred income tax asset is realized or the deferred income tax liability is settled.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax assets against current tax liabilities and when the deferred income tax assets and liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on either the taxable entity or different taxable entities where there is an intention to settle the balances on a net basis. A surplus of deferred income tax assets is recognized only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilized.

For taxable temporary differences arising on investments in subsidiaries and associates, deferred tax liabilities are recognized, except where the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference is controlled by the Group and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

The Group applies the temporary exemption with regard to the recognition of deferred taxes resulting from the introduction of global minimum taxation. As the global minimum taxation is not applicable in any of the countries in which the Group operates in the reporting period and therefore no deferred taxes are to be recognized, there are no effects on the Consolidated Financial Statements.

Employee benefits

(a) Pension obligations

Group companies operate different pension schemes. NORMA Group has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans. A defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Group pays fixed contributions to a separate entity. The Group has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior periods. A defined benefit plan is a pension plan that is not a defined contribution plan. The major defined benefit plan is the German benefit plan, which defines the amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement to depend on years of service and remuneration.

The liability recognized in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position with respect to defined benefit pension plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation on the balance sheet date less the fair value of plan assets. The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually by independent actuaries using the projected unit

credit method. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using interest rates for high-quality fixed-rate corporate bonds denominated in the currency in which the benefits will be paid and whose remaining maturities approximate the maturities of the related pension obligations.

Remeasurement gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions, as well as returns on plan assets, which are not included within the net interest on the defined benefit liability, are recognized within retained earnings in other comprehensive income (OCI).

Past service costs are recognized fully in the period of the related plan amendment.

For defined contribution plans, the Group pays contributions to publicly or privately administered pension insurance plans on a mandatory, contractual or voluntary basis. The Group has no further payment obligations once the contributions have been paid. The contributions are recognized as employee benefits expense when they are due. Prepaid contributions are recognized as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in the future payments is available.

(b) Termination benefits

Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated by the Group before the normal retirement date, or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Group recognizes termination benefits as a liability and expense on the earlier date of: (a) when the entity can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits; or (b) when the entity recognizes costs for a restructuring that is within the scope of IAS 37 and involves the payment of termination benefits. Where the effect of the time value of money is material, the payables are discounted to their present value.

(c) Short-term employee benefits

Employee benefits with short-term payment dates include wages and salaries, social security contributions, vacation pay and sickness benefits and are recognized as liabilities at the repayment amount as soon as the associated job has been performed.

(d) Provisions for other long-term employee benefits

Provisions for obligations similar to pensions (such as anniversary allowances) are comprised of the present value of future payment obligations to the employee less any associated assets measured at fair value. The amount of provisions is determined on the basis of actuarial opinions in line with IAS 19. Gains and losses from the remeasurement are recognized in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.

Share-based payments

Share-based payment plans issued at NORMA Group are accounted for in accordance with IFRS 2 ‘’Share-based payments’’ is reported under this item. In accordance with IFRS 2, NORMA Group in principle distinguishes between equity-settled and cash-settled plans. The financial interest from equity-settled plans granted on the grant date is generally allocated over the expected vesting period against equity until the exit event occurs. Expenses from cash-settled plans are generally also allocated over the expected vesting period until the exit event occurs, but against accruals. For the plans existing on the reporting date, please refer to NOTE 25 SHARE-BASED PAYMENTS.


Provisions are recognized when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation to third parties as a result of past events; it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation; and the amount has been reliably estimated.

Where there are a number of similar obligations, the likelihood that an outflow will be required in settlement is determined by considering the class of obligations as a whole. A provision is recognized even if the likelihood of an outflow with respect to any one item included in the same class of obligations may be small.

If the interest effect is material, the obligations are recognized at the present value of the expected expenses.

In addition to the expected amount of cash outflows, uncertainties also exist regarding the time of outflows. If it is expected that the outflows will take place within one year, the relevant amounts are reported in the short-term provisions.

When the Group is virtually certain to receive a refund for a provision, this refund is recognized in accordance with IAS 37.53 as a separate asset. If the refund is in a close economic relationship with the recognized provision, the expenses from the provision are netted with the income from the corresponding refund in profit or loss.

Income from the release of non-utilized provisions from prior years is recorded within other operating income.

Revenues from contracts with customers (revenue recognition)

NORMA Group recognizes revenue when or as control over distinct goods or services is transferred to the customer, i.e., when the customer is able to direct the use of the transferred goods or services and obtains substantially all of the remaining benefits. The prerequisite for this is that a contract with enforceable rights and obligations exists and, among other things, the receipt of the consideration – taking into account the customer’s creditworthiness – is probable. Revenue is the transaction price NORMA Group expects to be entitled to. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price if it is highly probable that a significant reversal of revenue will not occur once associated uncertainties are resolved. The amount of variable consideration is calculated by either using the expected value or the most likely amount depending on which is expected to better predict the amount of variable consideration. Consideration is adjusted for the time value of money if the period between the transfer of goods or services and the receipt of payment exceeds twelve months and there is a significant financing benefit either to the customer or NORMA Group. If a contract contains more than one distinct good or service, the transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation based on relative stand-alone selling prices. If stand-alone selling prices are not observable, the Company reasonably estimates those. Revenue is recognized for each performance obligation either at a point in time or over time.

NORMA Group makes use of the relief provisions of IFRS 15 and no disclosure is made with regard to performance obligations not yet fulfilled as of the reporting date, as the outstanding performance obligations are part of a contract with an original term of up to twelve months.

(a) Sale of goods

Revenue is recognized at the time when control is transferred to the acquirer in accordance with the agreed Incoterms and no unfulfilled obligations remain. Invoices are issued at that point in time and are usually payable within 30 to 90 days. For the sale of goods, retrospective volume discounts, which usually apply to a calendar year,

are often agreed. Revenue from these sales is recognized at the amount of the consideration set in the contract less the estimated volume discounts. The estimate of the refund liabilities recognized for these volume rebates is based on experience and revenue recognized in the fiscal year.

(b) Engineering services

Revenue in connection with engineering services is not recognized on a straight-line basis, but is based on the ratio of costs already incurred to the estimated total costs. The determination of the percentage of completion is crucial and also includes estimates regarding the scope of delivery and services as well as the total contract costs, revenues and risks, including technical risks.

Invoices are issued in accordance with the contractual conditions, whereby a payment period of 30 to 90 days after invoicing usually applies.

Contract assets, contract liabilities, refund liabilities and considerations payable to a customer

When either party to a contract with customers has performed, NORMA Group presents a contract asset, a contract liability or a trade receivable depending on the relationship between NORMA’s performance and the customer’s payment.

A contract asset represents NORMA Group’s right to consideration in exchange for goods or services that have been transferred to the customer. The impairment of contract assets is measured, presented and reported on the same basis as for financial assets within the scope of IFRS 9.

Trade receivables are recognized when the right to receive the consideration is no longer subject to a condition (unconditional claim).

Considerations received, which are expected to be reimbursed to the customer are shown as refund liabilities. These liabilities are included in the balance sheet in the item “Trade and other payables”. These amounts typically relate to expected volume discounts and annual customer bonuses.

Considerations payable to a customer that cannot be directly allocated to a service or good received by NORMA Group are recognized as a reduction of the transaction price. If this reduction relates to future revenue, this part is recognized in other non-financial assets as consideration payable to a customer.

Government grants

Government grants are not recognized until there is reasonable assurance that the conditions attached to them are complied with and that the grants will be received.

Government grants for the compensation of expenses incurred are recognized in profit or loss as part of the other operating income on a systematic basis over the periods in which the related costs are expensed that the grants are intended to compensate for.

Grants related to non-depreciable assets are recognized in profit or loss as part of the other operating income over the periods that bear the cost of meeting the obligations.

Grants related to depreciable assets are recognized in profit or loss over the periods that bear the expense related to the depreciation of the underlying assets and are recognized as deferred income in the Statement of Financial

Position. The deferred income is recognized in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the expected useful life of the underlying asset and reported as part of other operating income.

Dividends paid

Dividends are recognized as a financial liability in the balance sheet at the time the shareholders approve the resolution to distribute them. At the same time, they are recognized in equity as a profit distribution from retained earnings.


These contents are part of the Non-financial Group Report and were subject to a separate limited assurance examination.