Employee benefits expense comprised the following:

Employee benefits expense














Employee benefits expense in fiscal year 2022 increased by 8.6% compared to fiscal year 2021. As a percentage of total output, employee benefits expense declined from 25.6% to 24.5% in the most recent fiscal year. This development also resulted from a higher volume of sales due, among other factors, to the price increases included in the increase in sales.

The increase in absolute employee benefits expense is also related to the change in value of the US dollar against the euro, as a result of which currency effects had an increasing impact on expenses. Furthermore, the increase in personnel costs in the Asia-Pacific region with a higher number of employees compared to the previous year, as well as wage increases in the United States, had a negative impact.

In 2022, the average headcount was 6,233 (2021: 6,432).


These contents are part of the Non-financial Group Report and were subject to a separate limited assurance examination.